Grades 58 Performance Task
Contributed by: Kentucky Department of Education (KDE)
Description:
Students investigate Newton's Laws of Motion and the Law of Conservation
of Energy. They examine how a ball and halfball behave and relate
these laws to what happens to the balls. Students produce a graph
of the data collected and compare the bounces of the halfball to
the bounces of the racquetball.
Note: Although the major science discipline content of this task
is described in the National Science Education Standards for students
in grades 912, the task was originally designed for grade 8 students
by the Kentucky Department of Education.
This task is designed to take students approximately 45 minutes
to complete.
Overall Task Content Area:

 Physical Science
Specific Knowledge Areas:

 Motions and forces
Performance Expectations:
 conducting investigations
 using equipment
 gathering, organizing, and representing data
 formulating conclusions from investigational data
 applying scientific principles to develop explanations and solve
new problems
National Science Education Standards:
8 A SI 1: Ability necessary to do scientific inquiry:
Grades 58
1.4 Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and
models using evidence. Students should base their explanation on
what they observed, and as they develop cognitive skills, they should
be able to differentiate explanation from description — providing
causes for effects and establishing relationships based on evidence
and logical argument. This standards requires a subject knowledge
base so the students can effectively conduct investigations, because
developing explanations establishes connections between the content
of science and the contexts within which students develop new knowledge.
1.8 Use mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry.
Mathematics is essential to asking and answering questions about
the natural world. Mathematics can be used to ask questions; to
gather, organize, and present data; and to structure convincing
explanations.
8 B PS 2: Motions and forces: Grades 58
2.1 The motion of an object can be described by its position,
direction of motion, and speed. That motion can be measured and
represented on a graph.
(Use the "hot" link on the PALS home page
to check the full text of related National Science Education Standards,
if desired.)
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics:
AL1: Understand patterns, relations and functions:
Grades 68 f. represent, analyze, and generalize a variety
of patterns with tables, graphs, words, and, when possible, symbolic
rules
DAP3: Develop and evaluate inferences
and predictions that are based on data:
Grades 68 e. use conjectures to formulate
new questions and plan new studies to answer them
DAP2: Select and use appropriate statistical
methods to analyze data:
Grades 68 e. find, use, and interpret
measures of center and spread, including mean and interquartile
range
PS2: Solve problems that arise in mathematics
and in other contexts:
Grades 68
COM1: Organize and consolidate their mathematical
thinking through communication:
Grades 68
CNX1: Recognize and use connections among
mathematical ideas:
Grades 68
REP1: Create and use representations to
organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas:
Grades 68
General Instructions to the Teacher:
This task is designed to take students approximately 45 minutes to
complete.
Students may work in groups of 4 (35) for the experiment/activity
part of this exercise. Students work together for up to 20 minutes.
They are instructed to notify you when finished with the group work,
and then to go on to the individual work. If students are still
working together 20 minutes after the testing begins, instruct them
to cease their group work and begin individual work. At this point,
they may no longer talk. Whether or not they are just beginning
their individual work, remind students that they now have about
25 minutes to complete the individual activity.
Students should be ready to work as soon as the period begins.
Group assignments should be made in advance. The materials should
be set out at each lab station, if possible. A central supply area,
if needed, should be easily accessible. All supplies should be clearly
labeled.
Materials for "HalfBall":
At this station students should have:

 One halfball
Two meter sticks
One racquetball
Calculator for each student
Pencils for each student
Advance Preparation:
Materials should be obtained (or made) and tested for performance
prior to the testing period.
Safety:
 Be careful.
 Teachers and students should always exercise appropriate safety
precautions and utilize appropriate laboratory safety procedures
and equipment when working on science performance tasks.
Kentucky Department of Education
Performance Events 199596
