Science as Inquiry (12ASI)
Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry
12ASI1.1 Identify questions and concepts that guide scientific
investigations. Students should form a testable hypothesis and
demonstrate the logical connections between the scientific concepts
guiding a hypothesis and the design of an experiment. They should
demonstrate appropriate procedures, a knowledge base, and conceptual
understanding of scientific investigations.
12ASI1.2 Design and conduct scientific investigations. Designing
and conducting a scientific investigation requires introduction
to the major concepts in the area being investigated, proper equipment,
safety precautions, assistance with methodological problems, recommendations
for use of technologies, clarification of ideas that guide the
inquiry, and scientific knowledge obtained from sources other
than the actual investigation. The investigation may also require
student clarification of the question, method, controls, and variables;
student organization and display of data; student revision of
methods and explanations; and a public presentation of the results
with a critical response from peers. Regardless of the scientific
investigation performed, students must use evidence, apply logic,
and construct an argument for their proposed explanations.
12ASI1.3 Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations
and communications. A variety of technologies, such as hand tools,
measuring instruments, and calculators, should be an integral
component of scientific investigations. The use of computers for
the collection, analysis, and display of data is also a part of
this standard. Mathematics plays an essential role in all aspects
of an inquiry. For example, measurement is used for posing questions,
formulas are used for developing explanations, and charts and
graphs are used for communicating results.
12ASI1.4 Formulate and revise scientific explanations and models
using logic and evidence. Student inquiries should culminate in
formulating an explanation or model. Models should be physical,
conceptual, and mathematical. In the process of answering the
questions, the students should engage in discussions and arguments
that result in the revision of their explanations. These discussions
should be based on scientific knowledge, the use of logic, and
evidence from their investigation.
12ASI1.5 Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and models.
This aspect of the standard emphasizes the critical abilities
of analyzing an argument by reviewing current scientific understanding,
weighing the evidence, and examining the logic so as to decide
which explanations and models are best. In other words, although
there may be several plausible explanations, they do not all have
equal weight. Students should be able to use scientific criteria
to find the preferred explanations.
12ASI1.6 Communicate and defend a scientific argument. Students
in school science programs should develop the abilities associated
with accurate and effective communication. These include writing
and following procedures, expressing concepts, reviewing information,
summarizing data, using language appropriately, developing diagrams
and charts, explaining statistical analysis, speaking clearly
and logically, constructing a reasoned argument, and responding
appropriately to critical comments.
Understandings about scientific inquiry
12ASI2.1 Scientists usually inquire about how physical, living,
or designed systems function. Conceptual principles and knowledge
guide scientific inquiries. Historical and current scientific
knowledge influence the design and interpretation of investigations
and the evaluation of proposed explanations made by other scientists.
12ASI2.2 Scientists conduct investigations for a wide variety
of reasons. For example, they may wish to discover new aspects
of the natural world, explain recently observed phenomena, or
test the conclusions of prior investigations or the predictions
of current theories.
12ASI2.3 Scientists rely on technology to enhance the gathering
and manipulation of data. New techniques and tools provide new
evidence to guide inquiry and new methods to gather data, thereby
contributing to the advance of science. The accuracy and precision
of the data, and therefore the quality of the exploration, depends
on the technology used.
12ASI2.4 Mathematics is essential in scientific inquiry. Mathematical
tools and models guide and improve the posing of questions, gathering
data, constructing explanations and communicating results
12ASI2.5 Scientific explanation must adhere to criteria such
as: a proposed explanation must be logically consistent; it must
abide by the rules of evidence; it must be open to questions and
possible modification; and it must be based on historical and
current scientific knowledge.
12ASI2.6 Results of scientific inquiry new knowledge and
methods emerge from different types of investigations and
public communication among scientists. In communicating and defending
the results of scientific inquiry, arguments must be logical and
demonstrate connections between natural phenomena, investigations,
and the historical body of scientific knowledge. In addition,
the methods and procedures that scientists used to obtain evidence
must be clearly reported to enhance opportunities for further
Physical Science (12BPS)
Structure of atoms
12BPS1.1 Matter is made of minute particles called atoms, and
atoms are composed of even smaller components. These components
have measurable properties, such as mass and electrical charge.
Each atom has a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively
charged electrons. The electric force between the nucleus and
electrons holds the atoms together.
12BPS1.2 The atoms nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons,
which are much more massive than electrons. When an element has
atoms that differ in the number of neutrons, these atoms are called
different isotopes of the element.
12BPS1.3 The nuclear forces that hold the nucleus of an atom
together, at nuclear distances, are usually stronger than the
electric forces that would make it fly apart. Nuclear reactions
convert a fraction of the mass of interacting particles into energy,
and they can release much greater amounts of energy than atomic
interactions. Fission is the splitting of a large nucleus into
smaller pieces. Fusion is the joining of two nuclei at extremely
high temperature and pressure, and is the process responsible
for the energy of the sun and other stars.
12BPS1.4 Radioactive isotopes are unstable and undergo spontaneous
nuclear reactions, emitting particles and/or wavelike radiation.
The decay of any one nucleus cannot be predicted, but a large
group of identical nuclei decay at a predictable rate. This predictability
can be used to estimate the age of materials that contain radioactive
Structure and properties of matter
12BPS2.1 Atoms interact with one another by transferring or sharing
electrons that are furthest from the nucleus. These outer electrons
govern the chemical properties of the element.
12BPS2.2 An element is composed of a single type of atom. When
elements are listed in order according to the number of protons
(called the atomic number), repeating patterns of physical and
chemical properties identify families of elements with similar
properties. This "Periodic Table" is a consequence of
the repeating pattern of outermost electrons and their permitted
12BPS2.3 Bonds between atoms are created when electrons are paired
up by being transferred or shared. A substance composed of a single
kind of atom is called an element. The atoms may be bonded together
into molecules or crystalline solids. A compound is formed when
two or more kinds of atoms bind together chemically.
12BPS2.4 The physical properties of compounds reflect the nature
of the interactions among its molecules. These interactions are
determined by the structure of the molecule, including the constituent
atoms and the distances and angles between them.
12BPS2.5 Solids, liquids, and gases differ in the distances and
angles between molecules or atoms and therefore the energy that
binds them together. In solids the structure is nearly rigid;
in liquids molecules or atoms move around each other but do not
move apart; and in gases molecules or atoms move almost independently
of each other and are mostly far apart.
12BPS2.6 Carbon atoms can bond to one another in chains, rings,
and branching networks to form a variety of structures, including
synthetic polymers, oils, and the large molecules essential to
12BPS3.1 Chemical reactions occur all around us, for example
in health care, cooking, cosmetics, and automobiles. Complex chemical
reactions involving carbon-based molecules take place constantly
in every cell in our bodies.
12BPS3.2 Chemical reactions may release or consume energy. Some
reactions such as the burning fossil fuels release large amounts
of energy by losing heat and by emitting light. Light can initiate
many chemical reactions such as photosynthesis and the evolution
of urban smog.
12BPS3.3 A large number of important reactions involve the transfer
of either electrons (oxidation/reduction reactions) or hydrogen
ions (acid/base reactions) between reacting ions, molecules, or
atoms. In other reactions, chemical bonds are broken by heat or
light to form very reactive radicals with electrons ready to form
new bonds. Radical reactions control many processes such as the
presence of ozone and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, burning
and processing of fossil fuels, the formation of polymers, and
12BPS3.4 Chemical reactions can take place in time periods ranging
from the few femtoseconds (10 15 seconds) required
for an atom to move a fraction of a chemical bond distance to
geologic time scales of billions of years. Reaction rates depend
on how often the reacting atoms and molecules encounter one another,
on the temperature, and on the properties including shape
of the reacting species.
12BPS3.5 Catalysts, such as metal surfaces, accelerate chemical
reactions. Chemical reactions in living systems are catalyzed
by protein molecules called enzymes.
Motions and forces
12BPS4.1 Objects change their motion only when a net force is
applied. Laws of motion are used to calculate precisely the effects
of forces on the motion of objects. The magnitude of the change
in motion can be calculated using the relationship F=ma, which
is independent of the nature of the force. Whenever one object
exerts force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite
in direction is exerted on the first object.
12BPS4.2 Gravitation is a universal force that each mass exerts
on any other mass. The strength of the gravitational attractive
force between two masses is proportional to the masses and inversely
proportional to the square of the distance between them.
12BPS4.3 The electric force is a universal force that exists
between any two charged objects. Opposite charges attract while
like charges repel. The strength of the force is proportional
to the charges, and, as with gravitation, inversely proportional
to the square of the distance between them.
12BPS4.4 Between any two charged particles, electric force is
vastly greater than the gravitational force. Most observable forces
such as those exerted by a coiled spring or friction may be traced
to electric forces acting between atoms and molecules.
12BPS4.5 Electricity and magnetism are two aspects of a single
electromagnetic force. Moving electric charges produce magnetic
forces, and moving magnets produce electric forces. These effects
help students to understand electric motors and generators.
Conservation of energy and the increase in disorder
12BPS5.1 The total energy of the universe is constant. Energy
can be transferred by collisions in chemical and nuclear reactions,
by light waves and other radiations, and in many other ways. However,
it can never be destroyed. As these transfers occur, the matter
involved becomes steadily less organized.
12BPS5.2 All energy can be considered to be either kinetic energy,
which is the energy of motion; potential energy, which depends
on relative position; or energy contained by a field, such as
12BPS5.3 Heat consists of random motion and the vibrations of
atoms, molecules, and ions. The higher the temperature, the greater
the atomic or molecular motion.
12BPS5.4 Everything tends to become less organized and less orderly
over time. Thus, in all energy transfers, the overall effect is
that the energy is spread out uniformly. Examples are the transfer
of energy from hotter to cooler objects by conduction, radiation,
or convection and the warming of our surroundings when we burn
Interactions of energy and matter
12BPS6.1 Waves, including sound and seismic waves, waves on water,
and light waves, have energy and can transfer energy when they
interact with matter.
12BPS6.2 Electromagnetic waves result when a charged object is
accelerated or decelerated. Electromagnetic waves include radio
waves (the longest wavelength), microwaves, infrared radiation
(radiant heat), visible light, ultraviolet radiation, x-rays,
and gamma rays. The energy of electromagnetic waves is carried
in packets whose magnitude is inversely proportional to the wavelength.
12BPS6.3 Each kind of atom or molecule can gain or lose energy
only in particular discrete amounts and thus can absorb and emit
light only at wavelengths corresponding to these amounts. These
wavelengths can be used to identify the substance.
12BPS6.4 In some materials, such as metals, electrons flow easily,
whereas in insulating materials such as glass they can hardly
flow at all. Semiconducting materials have intermediate behavior.
At low temperatures some materials become superconductors and
offer no resistance to the flow of electrons.
Life Science (12CLS)
12CLS1.1 Cells have particular structures that underlie their
functions. Every cell is surrounded by a membrane that separates
it from the outside world. Inside the cell is a concentrated mixture
of thousands of different molecules which form a variety of specialized
structures that carry out such cell functions as energy production,
transport of molecules, waste disposal, synthesis of new molecules,
and the storage of genetic material.
12CLS1.2 Most cell functions involve chemical reactions. Food
molecules taken into cells react to provide the chemical constituents
needed to synthesize other molecules. Both breakdown and synthesis
are made possible by a large set of protein catalysts, called
enzymes. The breakdown of some of the food molecules enables the
cell to store energy in specific chemicals that are used to carry
out the many functions of the cell.
12CLS1.3 Cells store and use information to guide their functions.
The genetic information stored in DNA is used to direct the synthesis
of the thousands of proteins that each cell requires.
12CLS1.4 Cell functions are regulated. Regulation occurs both
through changes in the activity of the functions performed by
proteins and through the selective expression of individual genes.
This regulation allows cells to respond to their environment and
to control and coordinate cell growth and division.
12CLS1.5 Plant cells contain chloroplasts, the site of photosynthesis.
Plants and many microorganisms use solar energy to combine molecules
of carbon dioxide and water into complex, energy rich organic
compounds and release oxygen to the environment. This process
of photosynthesis provides a vital connection between the sun
and the energy needs of living systems.
12CLS1.6 Cells can differentiate, and complex multicellular organisms
are formed as a highly organized arrangement of differentiated
cells. In the development of these multicellular organisms, the
progeny from a single cell form an embryo in which the cells multiply
and differentiate to form the many specialized cells, tissues,
and organs that comprise the final organism. This differentiation
is regulated through the expression of different genes.
The molecular basis of heredity
12CLS2.1 In all organisms, the instructions for specifying the
characteristics of the organism are carried in DNA, a large polymer
formed from subunits of four kinds (A, G, C, and T). The chemical
and structural properties of DNA explain how the genetic information
that underlies heredity is both encoded in genes (as a string
of molecular "letters") and replicated (by a templating
mechanism). Each DNA molecule in a cell forms a single chromosome.
12CLS2.2 Most of the cells in a human contain two copies of each
of 22 different chromosomes. In addition, there is a pair of chromosomes
which determine sex: a female contains two X chromosomes and a
male contains one X and one Y chromosome. Transmission of genetic
information to offspring occurs through egg and sperm cells that
contain only one representative from each chromosome pair. An
egg and a sperm unite to form a new individual. The fact that
the human body is formed from cells that contain two copies of
each chromosome and therefore two copies of each gene
explains many features of human heredity, such as how variations
that are hidden in one generation can be expressed in the next.
12CLS2.3 Changes in DNA (mutations) occur spontaneously at low
rates. Some of these changes make no difference to the organism,
whereas others can change cells and organisms. Only mutations
in germ cells can create the variation that changes an organisms
12CLS3.1 Species evolve over time. Evolution is the consequence
of the interactions of (1) the potential for a species to increase
its numbers, (2) the genetic variability of offspring due to mutation
and recombination of genes, (3) a finite supply of the resources
required for life, and (4) the ensuing selection by the environment
of those offspring better able to survive and leave offspring.
12CLS3.2 The great diversity of organisms is the result of more
than 3.5 billion years of evolution that has filled every available
niche with life forms.
12CLS3.3 Natural selection and its evolutionary consequences
provide a scientific explanation for the fossil record of ancient
life forms, as well as for the striking molecular similarities
observed among the diverse species of living organisms.
12CLS3.4 The millions of different species of plants, animals,
and microorganisms that live on earth today are related by descent
from common ancestors.
12CLS3.5 Biological classifications are based on how organisms
are related. Organisms are classified into hierarchy of groups
and subgroups based on similarities which reflect their evolutionary
relationships Species is the most fundamental unit of classification.
The interdependence of organisms
12CLS4.1 The atoms and molecules on the earth cycle among the
living and nonliving components of the biosphere.
12CLS4.2 Energy flows through ecosystems in one direction, from
photosynthetic organisms to herbivores to carnivores and decomposers.
12CLS4.3 Organisms both cooperate and compete in ecosystems.
The interrelationships and interdependencies of these organisms
may generate ecosystems that are stable for hundreds or thousands
12CLS4.4 Living organisms have the capacity to produce populations
of infinite size, but environments and resources are finite. This
fundamental tension has profound effects on the interactions between
12CLS4.5 Human beings live within the worlds ecosystems.
Increasingly, humans modify ecosystems as a result of population
growth, technology, and consumption. Human destruction of habitats
through direct harvesting, pollution, atmospheric changes, and
other factors is threatening current global stability, and if
not addressed, ecosystems will be irreversibly affected.
Matter, energy, and organization in living systems
12CLS5.1 All matter tends toward more disorganized states. Living
systems require a continuous input of energy to maintain their
chemical and physical organizations. With death, and the cessation
of energy input, living systems rapidly disintegrate.
12CLS5.2 The energy for life primarily derives from the sun.
Plants capture energy by absorbing light and using it to form
strong (covalent) chemical bonds between the atoms of carbon-containing
(organic) molecules. These molecules can be used to assemble larger
molecules with biological activity (including proteins, DNA, sugars,
and fats). In addition, the energy stored in bonds between the
atoms (chemical energy) can be used as sources of energy for life
12CLS5.3 The chemical bonds of food molecules contain energy.
Energy is released when the bonds of food molecules are broken
and new compounds with lower energy bonds are formed. Cells usually
store this energy temporarily in phosphate bonds of a small high-energy
compound called ATP.
12CLS5.4 The complexity and organization of organisms accommodates
the need for obtaining, transforming, transporting, releasing,
and eliminating the matter and energy used to sustain the organism.
12CLS5.5 The distribution and abundance of organisms and populations
in ecosystems are limited by the availability of matter and energy
and the ability of the ecosystem to recycle materials.
12CLS5.6 As matter and energy flows through different levels
of organization of living systems cells, organs, organisms,
communities and between living systems and the physical
environment, chemical elements are recombined in different ways.
Each recombination results in storage and dissipation of energy
into the environment as heat. Matter and energy are conserved
in each change.
The behavior of organisms
12CLS6.1 Multicellular animals have nervous systems that generate
behavior. Nervous systems are formed from specialized cells that
conduct signals rapidly through the long cell extensions that
make up nerves. The nerve cells communicate with each other by
secreting specific excitatory and inhibitory molecules. In sense
organs, specialized cells detect light, sound, and specific chemicals
and enable animals to monitor what is going on in the world around
12CLS6.2 Organisms have behavioral responses to internal changes
and to external stimuli. Responses to external stimuli can result
from interactions with the organisms own species and others,
as well as environmental changes; these responses either can be
innate or learned. The broad patterns of behavior exhibited by
animals have evolved to ensure reproductive success. Animals often
live in unpredictable environments, and so their behavior must
be flexible enough to deal with uncertainty and change. Plants
also respond to stimuli.
12CLS6.3 Like other aspects of an organisms biology, behaviors
have evolved through natural selection. Behaviors often have an
adaptive logic when viewed in terms of evolutionary principles.
12CLS6.4 Behavioral biology has implications for humans, as it
provides links to psychology, sociology, and anthropology.
Earth and Space Science (12DESS)
Energy in the earth system
12DESS1.1 Earth systems have internal and external sources of
energy, both of which create heat. The sun is the major external
source of energy. Two primary sources of internal energy are the
decay of radioactive isotopes and the gravitational energy from
the earths original formation.
12DESS1.2 The outward transfer of earths internal heat
drives convection circulation in the mantle that propels the plates
comprising earths surface across the face of the globe.
12DESS1.3 Heating of earths surface and atmosphere by the
sun drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing
winds and ocean currents.
12DESS1.4 Global climate is determined by energy transfer from
the sun at and near the earths surface. This energy transfer
is influenced by dynamic processes such as cloud cover and the
earths rotation, and static conditions such as the position
of mountain ranges and oceans.
12DESS2.1 The earth is a system containing essentially a fixed
amount of each stable chemical atom or element. Each element can
exist in several different chemical reservoirs. Each element on
earth moves among reservoirs in the solid earth, oceans, atmosphere,
and organisms as part of geochemical cycles.
12DESS2.2 Movement of matter between reservoirs is driven by
the earths internal and external sources of energy. These
movements are often accompanied by a change in the physical and
chemical properties of the matter. Carbon, for example, occurs
in carbonate rocks such as limestone, in the atmosphere as carbon
dioxide gas, in water as dissolved carbon dioxide, and in all
organisms as complex molecules that control the chemistry of life.
The origin and evolution of the earth system
12DESS3.1 The sun, the earth, and the rest of the solar system
formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas 4.6 billion years
ago. The early earth was very different from the planet we live
12DESS3.2 Geologic time can be estimated by observing rock sequences
and using fossils to correlate the sequences at various locations.
Current methods include using the known decay rates of radioactive
isotopes present in rocks to measure the time since the rock was
12DESS3.3 Interactions among the solid earth, the oceans, the
atmosphere, and organisms have resulted in the ongoing evolution
of the earth system. We can observe some changes such as earthquakes
and volcanic eruptions on a human time scale, but many processes
such as mountain building and plate movements take place over
hundreds of millions of years.
12DESS3.4 Evidence for one-celled forms of life- the bacteria-
extends back more than 3.5 billion years. The evolution of life
caused dramatic changes in the composition of the earths
atmosphere, which did not originally contain oxygen.
The origin and evolution of the universe
12DESS4.1The origin of the universe remains one of the greatest
questions in science. The "big bang" theory places the
origin between 10 and 20 billion years ago, when the universe
began in a hot dense state; according to this theory, the universe
has been expanding ever since.
NHSD4.2 Early in the history of the universe, matter, primarily
the light atoms hydrogen and helium, clumped together by gravitational
attraction to form countless trillions of stars. Billions of galaxies,
each of which is a gravitational bound cluster of billions of
stars, now form most of the visible mass in the universe.
12DESS4.3 Stars produce energy from nuclear reactions, primarily
the fusion of hydrogen to form helium. These and other processes
in stars have led to the formation of all the other elements.
Science and Technology (12EST)
Abilities of technological design
12EST1.1 Identify a problem or design an opportunity. Students
should be able to identify new problems or needs and to change
and improve current technological designs.
12EST1.2 Propose designs and choose between alternative solutions.
Students should demonstrate thoughtful planning for a piece of
technology or technique. Students should be introduced to the
roles of models and simulations in these processes.
12EST1.3 Implement a proposed solution. A variety of skills can
be needed in proposing a solution depending on the type of technology
that is involved. The construction of artifacts can require the
skills of cutting, shaping, treating, and joining common materials
- such as wood, metal, plastics, and textiles. Solutions can also
be implemented using computer software.
12EST1.4 Evaluate the solution and its consequences. Students
should test any solution against the needs and criteria it was
designed to meet. At this stage, new criteria not originally considered
may be reviewed.
12EST1.5 Communicate the problem, process, and solution. Students
should present their results to students, teachers, and others
in a variety of ways, such as orally, in writing, and in other
forms - including models, diagrams, and demonstrations.
Understandings about science and technology
12EST2.1 Scientists in different disciplines ask different questions, use
different methods of investigation, and accept different types of evidence to support
their explanations. Many scientific investigations require the contributions of individuals from
different disciplines, including engineering. New disciplines of science, such as geophysics
and biochemistry often emerge at the interface of two older disciplines.
12EST2.2 Science often advances with the introduction of new
technologies. Solving technological problems often results in
new scientific knowledge. New technologies often extend the current
levels of scientific understanding and introduce new areas of
12EST2.3 Creativity, imagination, and a good knowledge base are
all required in the work of science and engineering.
12EST2.4 Science and technology are pursued for different purposes.
Scientific inquiry is driven by the desire to understand the natural
world, and technological design is driven by the need to meet
human needs and solve human problems. Technology, by its nature,
has a more direct effect on society than science because its purpose
is to solve human problems, help humans adapt, and fulfill human
inspirations. Technological solutions may create new problems.
Science, by its nature, answers questions that may or may not
directly influence humans. Sometimes scientific advances challenge
peoples beliefs and practical explanations concerning various
aspects of the world.
12EST2.5 Technological knowledge is often not made public because
of patents and the financial potential of the idea or invention.
Scientific knowledge is made public through presentations at professional
meetings and publications in scientific journals.
Science in Personal and Social Perspectives (12FSPSP)
Personal and community health
12FSPSP1.1 Hazards and the potential for accidents exist. Regardless
of the environment, the possibility of injury, illness, disability,
or death may be present. Humans have a variety of mechanisms
sensory, motor, emotional, social, and technological that
can reduce and modify hazards.
12FSPSP1.2 The severity of disease symptoms is dependent on many
factors, such as human resistance and the virulence of the disease
producing organism. Many diseases can be prevented, controlled,
or cured. Some diseases, such as cancer, result from specific
body dysfunctions and cannot be transmitted.
12FSPSP1.3 Personal choice concerning fitness and health involves
multiple factors. Personal goals, peer and social pressures, ethnic
and religious beliefs, and understanding of biological consequences
can all influence decisions about health practices.
12FSPSP1.4 An individuals mood or behavior may be modified
by substances. The modification may be beneficial or detrimental
depending on the motives, type of substance, duration of use,
pattern of use, level of influence, and short- and long- term
effects. Students should understand that drugs can result in physical
dependence and can increase the risk of injury, accidents, and
12FSPSP1.5 Selection of foods and eating patterns determine nutritional
balance. Nutritional balance has a direct effect on growth and
development and personal well-being. Personal and social factors
- such as habits, family income, ethnic heritage, body size, advertising,
and peer pressure - influence nutritional choices.
12FSPSP1.6 Families serve basic health needs, especially for
young children. Regardless of the family structure, individuals
have families that involve a variety of physical, mental, and
social relationships that influence the maintenance and improvement
12FSPSP1.7 Sexuality is basic to the physical, mental, and social
development of humans. Students should understand that human sexuality
involves biological functions, psychological motives, and cultural,
ethnic, religious, and technological influences. Sex is a basic
and powerful force that has consequences to individuals
health and to society. Students should understand various methods
of controlling the reproduction process and that each method has
a different type of effectiveness and different health and social
12FSPSP2.1 Populations grow or decline through the combined effects
of births and deaths, and through emigration and immigration.
Populations can increase through linear or exponential growth,
with effects on resource use and environmental pollution.
12FSPSP2.2 Various factors influence birth rates and fertility
rates, such as average levels of affluence and education, importance
of children in the labor force, education and employment of women,
infant mortality rates, costs of raising children, availability
and reliability of birth control methods, and religious beliefs
and cultural norms that influence personal decisions about family
12FSPSP2.3 Populations can reach limits to growth. Carrying capacity
is the maximum number of individuals that can be supported in
a given environment. The limitation is not the availability of
space, but the number of people in relation to resources and the
capacity of earth systems to support human beings. Changes in
technology can cause significant changes, either positive or negative,
in carrying capacity.
12FSPSP3.1 Human populations use resources in the environment
in order to maintain and improve their existence. Natural resources
have been and will continue to be used to maintain human populations.
12FSPSP3.2 The earth does not have infinite resources; increasing
human consumption places severe stress on the natural processes
that renew some resources, and it depletes those resources that
cannot be renewed.
12FSPSP3.3 Humans use many natural systems as resources. Natural
systems have the capacity to reuse waste, but that capacity is
limited. Natural systems can change to an extent that exceeds
the limits of organisms to adapt naturally or humans to adapt
12FSPSP4.1 Natural ecosystems provide an array of basic processes
that affect humans. Those processes include maintenance of the
quality of the atmosphere, generation of soils, control of the
hydrologic cycle, disposal of wastes, and recycling of nutrients.
Humans are changing many of these basic processes, and the changes
may be detrimental to humans.
12FSPSP4.2 Materials from human societies affect both physical
and chemical cycles of the earth.
12FSPSP4.3 Many factors influence environmental quality. Factors
that students might investigate include population growth, resource
use, population distribution, overconsumption, the capacity of
technology to solve problems, poverty, the role of economic, political,
and religious views, and different ways human s view the earth.
Natural and human-induced hazards
12FSPSP5.1 Normal adjustments of earth may be hazardous for humans.
Humans live at the interface between the atmosphere driven by
solar energy and the upper mantle where convection creates changes
in the earths solid crust. As societies have grown, become
stable, and come to value aspects of the environment, vulnerability
to natural processes of change has increased.
12FSPSP5.2 Human activities can enhance potential for hazards.
Acquisition of resources, urban growth, and waste disposal can
accelerate rates of natural change.
12FSPSP5.3 Some hazards, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions,
and severe weather, are rapid and spectacular. But there are slow
and progressive changes that also result in problems for individuals
and societies. For example, change in stream channel position,
erosion of bridge foundations, sedimentation in lakes and harbors,
coastal erosion, and continuing erosion and wasting of soil and
landscapes can all negatively affect society.
12FSPSP5.4 Natural and human induced hazards present the need
for humans to assess potential danger and risk. Many changes in
the environment designed by humans bring benefits to society,
as well as cause risks. Students should understand the costs and
tradeoffs of various hazards ranging from those with minor
risk to a few people to major catastrophes with major risk to
many people. The scale of events and the accuracy with which scientists
and engineers can (and cannot) predict events are important considerations.
Science and technology in local, national, and global challenges
12FSPSP6.1 Science and technology are essential social enterprises,
but alone they can only indicate what can happen, not what should
happen. The latter involves human decisions about the use of knowledge.
12FSPSP6.2 Understanding basic concepts and principles of science
and technology should precede active debate about the economics,
policies, politics, and ethics of various science - and technology
- related challenges. However, understanding science alone will
not resolve local, national or global challenges.
12FSPSP6.3 Progress in science and technology can be affected
by social issues and challenges. Funding priorities for specific
health problems serve as examples of ways that social issues influence
science and technology.
12FSPSP6.4 Individuals and society must decide on proposals involving
new research and the introduction of new technologies into society.
Decisions involve assessment of alternatives, risks, costs, and
benefits and consideration of who benefits and who suffers, who
pays and gains, and what the risks are and who bears them. Students
should understand the appropriateness and value of basic questions
- "What can happen?" - "What are the odds?"
- and "How do scientists and engineers know what will happen?"
12FSPSP6.5 Humans have a major effect on other species. For example,
the influence of humans on other organisms occurs through land
use - which decreases space available to other species - and pollution
- which changes the chemical composition of air, soil, and water.
History and Nature of Science (12GHNS)
Science as a human endeavor
12GHNS1.1 Individuals and teams have contributed and will continue
to contribute to the scientific enterprise. Doing science or engineering
can be as simple as an individual conducting field studies or
as complex as hundreds of people working on a major scientific
question or technological problem. Pursuing science as a career
or as a hobby can be both fascinating and intellectually rewarding.
12GHNS1.2 Scientists have ethical traditions. Scientists value
peer review, truthful reporting about the methods and outcomes
of investigations, and making public the results of work. Violations
of such norms do occur, but scientists responsible for such violations
are censured by their peers.
12GHNS1.3 Scientists are influenced by societal, cultural, and
personal beliefs and ways of viewing the world. Science is not
separate from society but rather science is a part of society.
Nature of scientific knowledge
12GHNS2.1 Science distinguishes itself from other ways of knowing
and from other bodies of knowledge through the use of empirical
standards, logical arguments, and skepticism, as scientists strive
for the best possible explanations about the natural world.
12GHNS2.2 Scientific explanations must meet certain criteria.
First and foremost, they must be consistent with experimental
and observational evidence about nature, and must make accurate
predictions, when appropriate, about systems being studied. They
should also be logical, respect the rules of evidence, be open
to criticism, report methods and procedures, and make knowledge
public. Explanations on how the natural world changes based on
myths, personal beliefs, religious values, mystical inspiration,
superstition or authority may be personally useful and socially
relevant, but they are not scientific.
12GHNS2.3 Because all science ideas depend on experimental and
observational confirmation, all scientific knowledge is, in principle,
subject to change as new evidence becomes available. The core
ideas of science such as the conservation of energy or the laws
of motion have been subjected to a wide variety of confirmations
and are therefore unlikely to change in the areas in which they
have been tested. In areas where data or understanding are incomplete,
such as the details of human evolution or questions surrounding
global warming, new data may well lead to changes in current ideas
or resolve current conflicts. In situations where information
is still fragmentary, it is normal for scientific ideas to be
incomplete, but this is also where the opportunity for making
advances may be greatest.
12GHNS3.1 In history, diverse cultures have contributed scientific
knowledge and technologic inventions. Modern science began to
evolve rapidly in Europe several hundred years ago. During the
past two centuries, it has contributed significantly to the industrialization
of Western and non-Western cultures. However, other non-European
cultures have developed scientific ideas and solved human problems
12GHNS3.2 Usually, changes in science occur as small modifications
in existing knowledge. The daily work of science and engineering
results in incremental advances in our understanding of the world
and our ability to meet human needs and aspirations. Much can
be learned about the internal workings of science and the nature
of science from study of individual scientists, their daily work,
and their efforts to advance scientific knowledge in their area
12GHNS3.3 Occasionally, there are advances in science and technology
that have important and long lasting effects on science and society.
Examples of such advances include the following: Copernican revolution,
Newtonian mechanics, Relativity, Geologic time scale, Plate tectonics,
Atomic theory, Nuclear physics, Biological evolution, Germ theory,
Industrial revolution, Molecular biology, Information and communication,
Quantum theory, Galactic universe, Medical and health technology.
12GHNS3.4 The historical perspective of scientific explanations
demonstrates how scientific knowledge changes by evolving over
time, almost always building on earlier knowledge.